Statistics on Racism

Content

1. Indicators of racism
1.1. Interracial marriage and dating
1.2. Racial segregation
1.3. Other indicators
2. Employment and racism

1. Indicators of racism

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1.1. Interracial marriage and dating

The degree of interracial marriage (or miscegenation) in a society is a good indicator of the degree of racial bias and racism in this society. A strong increase in the number of such marriages, combined with the repeal of laws banning them, a decrease in the number of honor killings of women having a relationship with a man from another race, and a gradual disappearance of talk about “the purity of the race” and such, are all signs of the demise of racism.

In the U.S., the Supreme Court ruling in Loving v. Virginia in 1967 struck down the legal bans on interracial marriages that persisted in some states in the South.

Here are some graphs showing the increase in the number of people approving of interracial marriage and dating in the U.S.:

interracial marriage approval

approval-of-interracial-marriage2

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approval of interracial marriage

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approval of blacks and whites dating

levels of prejudice declining in the US

(source)

acceptance of interracial dating

(source)

reaction to family member marrying outside of race

(source)

interracial marriage

And this graph shows the evolution of the actual number of interracial marriages, also a traditional indicator of racism:

growing number of interracial marriages

(source)

racial and ethnic intermarriage

intermarriage trend

(source)

Still, it’s mostly Asians and Hispanics, rather than whites, who marry someone from another race:

interracial marriage

(source)

According to some, the current dispute over gay marriage is of the same type as the now settled dispute on interracial marriage (settled in the West at least), and will know the same fate. Let’s hope so.

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1.2. Racial segregation

Another quite popular indicator of racism is public opinion on racial residential segregation/integration. This indicator of racism – the willingness to live in the neighborhood of other races – is of course related to the previous one: the less interracial marriage, the more residential segregation. And school segregation is the consequence of residential segregation.

statistics on racism in the US

statistics on racism in the US

(source)

public opinion on racial diversity

(source)

Of course, as in the case of interracial dating/marriage, it’s not just public opinion that counts; what the public actually does matters too, if not more. Hence, here are some data on levels of segregation.

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1.3. Other indicators

The interracial marriage/dating and segregation are only two among many possible indicators of racism. You could also use a population’s willingness to vote for a political candidate of another race as an indicator of racism (or the relative absence of racism). Here’s an example:

willingness to vote for a black president

Willingness to live next door to people from another race is also a good indicator:

xenophobia and racism map

(source)

Or you can ask people directly about racism:

discrimination perception US

(source)

Large and persistent differences in wealth across races are probably also caused, in part at least, by racism:

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(source)

Or you could look for other indicators of racism such as incarceration statistics by race, poverty rates by race, health statistics by race or racial discrimination in employment.

Below you’ll find some data about the last of those other indicators of racism, namely employment discrimination.

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2. Employment and racism

This study shows that black men without a criminal record are less likely to be called back for a job interview than white men with a criminal record:

racial impact of a criminal record on interview callbacks

These data were collected during an experiment in which different testers applied for the same jobs advertised in newspapers. The testers had fake credentials that made them equivalent in terms of education, job experience, and so on. The testers were either black and white. Some testers from each group were instructed to indicate that they had a past non-criminal drug possession offense. The data would undoubtedly have shown an even more dismal picture had the testers faked a record for a property or violent crime.

Whites with a criminal record are more than 3 times more likely to get a callback than blacks with a criminal record. If you combine this blatant discrimination in employment decisions with the racially disproportionate rates of incarceration in the U.S., you have a recipe for economic exclusion of blacks.

In 2004, Jean-François Amadieu, a sociologist at the Sorbonne, sent out 500 CVs replying to ads for sales jobs in the Paris region. The CVs were identical except in one regard: some applicants had north African names, and others traditional French ones. The white male French names received five times as many job offers as the north African ones. When Amadieu repeated the exercise in 2006, the ratio was 20:1. (source)

Such examples of racism in employment policy have an impact on unemployment rates across races. Here are some data for the U.S.:

racial differences in joblessness

(source)

unemployment by race

(source)

unemployment rates among college graduates by race

(source)

Of course, this difference between the unemployment rates for blacks and whites isn’t entirely caused by direct discrimination in employment decisions. Other elements play a part:

  • Jobs are often concentrated in white suburbs, difficult to reach for blacks without cars.
  • Blacks can’t rely on networks of family businesses as much as whites or Latinos.
  • Blacks ”have been relegated to precarious, low-wage work … at disproportionate rates” (source), making them more vulnerable to recessions, outsourcing and competition from immigrants.
  • Indirect discrimination: if blacks receive substandard education, are less healthy and more poor, then this will affect their employment prospects:

race and education levels statistics

(source)

Here’s a table showing labor segregation in the US:

white

More on racial bias herehere and here. See also this page for data on hate crime and this page for data on discrimination. More on the measurement of racism is here.

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72 thoughts on “Statistics on Racism

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  4. Using interracial marriage as an indicator of levels of racial bias is inherently flawed. It fails to take into account fetishism (Jungle Fever and the unnamed obverse), reactionaryism, and a host of other factors.

    • I’d say imperfect, not flawed. Especially round the edges it does tell us something. Very low levels of interracial marriage in non-apartheid countries and countries with low levels of physical and demographic segregation are an indication of interracial dislike, at least. Conversely, high levels of interracial marriage indicate low levels of racism, since you’re hardly likely to marry someone you despise.

      Obviously, it’s not the whole picture. Physical segregation doesn’t promote interracial marriage. When blacks live in the ghetto and whites in the suburbs, people won’t marry someone from the other race simply because they’re unlikely to meet. Not because they are racists. (But then, why is there physical segregation if not because of racism?) And other elements play as well, as you point out. (Although I’m not convinced by the actual elements that you cite). I can name marital homogamy, the tendency to marry someone of your own education and income level. Blacks in the US have on average lower education and income, so whites are less likely to marry them. Not because they’re racist but because of homogamy. But again, why do blacks have lower education and income?…

    • John says:

      Those studies didn’t use direct #’s of interracial marriages occurring but rather social approval of such marriages. I highly doubt that the entire population is becoming more/less attracted to the fetish of “Jungle Fever.”

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    • Hawk Mendoza says:

      hi bob, you are being racist and sexist…all these people hating on you are bobist…how does that make you feel

    • RacismMakesNoSense!!!!! says:

      if your statement was true then there would be no such thing as black people any more as they would not be able to reproduce and would have died out so your comment is irrelevant and you can go F**k yourself now ;)
      (I blocked out part of the word as not to offend anyone by cussing)

    • Dan D says:

      I find, in my experience, that people who call other people “queer” are really trying to cover up the fact that they sometimes find themselves craving a gargantuan bucket of penis.

  6. Daniel says:

    You say niggers are queers?
    yet, statistics show that there are more gay white couples than black couples…
    you’re an ignorant prick. Show a little fucking respect or was your mum too shit faced your whole childhood that she couldn’t teach you a little racial tolerance?

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  9. Lisa Fields says:

    Your all being stupid, please shut up and stop cussing! And stop joking about being racist it’s kinda a big issue and that could really make people mad or hurt.

  10. Lisa Fields says:

    Your all being stupid, please shut up and stop cussing! And stop joking about being racist it’s kinda a big issue and that could really make people mad or hurt. And stop being gross!!!

  11. Greg Andrews says:

    Racism is such a hurtful subject that should never arise in our society today but it does, because at our day and age people are no longer primitive and should realize how everyone are equal and to think one as an individual is above or better then another is absurd.!

  12. Britty:) says:

    really. grow up. stop making gay and racial comments. seriously. its terrible! andd stop cussing alot of people from highschool and middle school get on here.

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  14. drizzt says:

    Its always confused me how some people can be so blatantly arrogant, dumb, and mad by the concept that someone has a difference. Everyone has differences whether they were born with it or not. There’s no reason to even to even bring up the ones that people discriminate against. So as kiah said “grow up.”

  15. John says:

    If you hate someone because they are hateful, aren’t you just doing the same thing? Hating Bob for his ignorance is the same as Bob hating someone because of the color of their skin. Hate, in any form, is never the answer.

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  17. shelia says:

    IN THIS DAY IN age it make you wonder if your life would you accept help from a stranger or would you say GOD I did everything I was suppose to do in my life and Im ready for my judgement

  18. Krystin Skomsky says:

    Unemployment is really a problem these days, i hope that the economy will become much better. Unemployment rates are still very high on our country. `..;. take a look at our favorite domain

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  21. RacismMakesNoSense!!!!! says:

    What really confuses me is racism, how can there be any discrimination over skin! its literally just skin, like Skin. Just skin. Seriously lost on what the big deal is about certain people having one colour and others having another. It’s SKIN. I mean I go to the beach to try and get tanned in order to have brown skin. one day are people going to wake up and decide that by having tanned skin you’re ‘bad’ people. So, no one ever goes in direct sunlight ever again. That sounds like it would go down well -.-
    So yeah, racism shouldn’t even exist, just like you wouldn’t expect someone to start hating people with green eyes or brunette hair. It’s a waste of time to hate, especially for no reason at all. So, racism can just stop right now because its ridiculous and I don’t like. so no more racism ever okay? Cool.

  22. I’m amazed, I must say. Rarely do I encounter a blog that’s both educative and interesting, and without a doubt, you’ve hit the nail on the head. The issue is an issue that too few people are speaking intelligently about. I am very happy that I found this during my search for something relating to this.

  23. Make says:

    Another word of the day is RASISM! That’s a way to set my firework. I had a teacher at Hendrick Middle School who was my history teacher. Now, I know what your thinking, its history and there’s certain thing he has to talk about. It’s not what he talked about; it was how he talked about it. One day we had a warm-up on the board. It said… “What do you think was going through there mine when Black Folk and Caucasian people started going to school together?” So I ask him “Why did you say “Black Folk” and “Caucasian People?” He says well that’s just what I yall people. So now I’m thinking YALL PEOPLE? Who is YALL PEOPLE? So I don’t say anything and I go speak to the principal. She doesn’t like me much. And she says we will talk to him and we will call both of you in together so I can hear both stories. 1 week goes by. 2 weeks goes by. So I go ask, are we still having the meeting. She says… What meeting? Oh I already talk to him. And she leaves. This only made it worst. Almost everyday in class he says black folk. And not only does he just say it he looks me in the eyes. So I just started to look him in the eyes and say “AFICAN AMERICAN! He gets angry and says… I use the other term. Not only does he do it with African Americans he also says Indian Folk and Asian people. So I correct him there too.

  24. Make Mr.Edmondson Faumous says:

    Hendrick Middle School Is In Plano, Texas. Make The Racist Teacher named.. Mr.Edmondson Famous

  25. Jerry says:

    The racial tolerance data indicates that racism is declining and pretty much dead. Especially the data that indicates amount of people that would vote for a black president. This contradicts the employment data that even black people with degrees are having trouble finding work. This also contradicts the current conviction rates of black people. Any explanations on this disparity? Are people consciously tolerant but subconsciously biased against blacks? Or it could be the fact that the people doing the hiring and convicting are all old people born before the 70s. Maybe our utopian society will become a reality once these old guys die off and are done driving this country into the dirt.

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  27. Gary says:

    Sorry but using interracial marriage like that is flawed. Racism still exists to this day in America. You’ve done some great work here with this article but I have to disagree with you on this one. Coming from an all white family with several cousins that married interracially, I think it all comes to who you are raised around. Our families were strict and extremely racist, and in return it didn’t exactly work on the kids and they decided not to be as racist as our past generations, thankfully.

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  31. racismiswrong says:

    im in high school doing a school project and quite frankly your language is diturbing and a disgrace to the human name. your acting like pigs. grow up and take youir anger out on yard work or something, not each other.

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  33. That One Racist Guy says:

    Just so this is out thereI am a racist.There is a giant difference between a NIGGER, which is a/an ignorant person(s) from Africa, plus a Ni**er can be any color whether it is white black yellow brown or red and a Black man or woman, who are not Ni**ers they are the people that try to get ahead and do the right thing. But to discriminate against someone that is trying to get ahead in life and make the right choices is wrong.

    • Blunt says:

      bitch you don’t know what yuh talkin bout yu weezii yal this bitchin bitch is a bitch. LOLOLOLZ SWAGzzzzzz

      Actually I find this to be disturbing. “Ignorant person(s) from Africa,” sir you are the ignorant person.

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