Statistics on Discrimination of Minorities

Content

1. Perceived discrimination
2. Poverty levels by population group
3. Incarceration or execution rates by population group
4. Crime victims by population group
5. Education levels by population group
6. Health by population group
7. Anti-semitism
8. Public acceptance of racial/ethnic diversity
9. The Asal & Pate discrimination index

1. Perceived discrimination

Measuring discrimination is rather tricky. One way to do it is to ask the target groups about their perception of discrimination. Like this:

discrimination perception US

(source)

Bhn_7XaCcAASL22

This graph gives information on perceived discrimination in minority groups in the Netherlands:

perceived discrimination netherlands

(source)

However, perceived discrimination is not the same as real discrimination: people can believe they are being discriminated against without there being any actual discrimination, while actual discrimination may not be perceived as such.

The following graph show the perception of the worsening plight of African Americans in the US, both among the African Americans themselves and among the white part of the population:

are blacks better off

(source)

However, when asked for the reasons for this worsening, most respondents – even most blacks – don’t consider discrimination to be the most important one:

discrimination african americans

^ back to top

2. Poverty levels by population group

Although poverty has many causes, discrimination is undoubtedly one of them. Large differences in wealth between groups – for example racial groups – may indicate the existence of discrimination. Here are some data on the situation in the US:

poverty and race in the us

poverty and race in the us

(source)

Median Income by Race

(source)

median earnings by race

(source)

US poverty rate by race

(source)

In the U.S., the median annual income for black families is 38 percent lower than for their white counterparts.

Average US annual labor income in 1992 was $17,100.  Compared to white males, what did members of other groups earn on average?

Group Labor Income Gap
Black -$6200
Other Non-White -$3700
Female -$12,000
(source)

These income differences between races (and genders) don’t necessarily or always result from conscious discrimination in wage determination (it is wrong to infer discrimination from difference). Different education levels, for example (see below), can also be a cause, but these causes can themselves be affected by discrimination (for example discrimination in education). Anyway, even corrected for education levels, incomes differ by race:

earnings by race

(source)

Different poverty and income levels by race are partly caused by different unemployment levels, and that is something which is probably caused in part by racism and discrimination (studies have shown that black or black sounding job applicants get fewer callbacks). Here’s an example for the U.S.:

unemployment rates among college graduates by race

(source)

unemployment rates by race US

(source)

racial impact of a criminal record on interview callbacks

This paper estimates that racial discrimination accounts for at least one-third of the wage difference between blacks and whites in the US.

Unsurprisingly, the recession of 2008/2009 wasn’t exactly colorblind:

change in net worth of households, by race

(source)

The recession obliterated more than half of the wealth (assets minus debts) of the average black and Hispanic household in the U.S. White households lost “only” 16%. (Assets are houses, cars, savings and checking accounts, stocks and mutual funds, retirement accounts, etc. Debts are mortgages, auto loans, credit card debt, etc.). The main culprit was the bursting of the housing market bubble.

As a result, the average black household had just $5,677 in wealth in 2009; the typical Hispanic household $6,325; and the typical white household $113,149. In relative terms, this means that in 2009, the median wealth of white households in the U.S. was 20 times that of black households, and 18 times that of Hispanic households; this difference is twice the size it used to be before the recession. Also, a third of black and Hispanic households now have zero or negative net worth.

Moreover, since the official end of the recession in mid-2009, the housing market in the U.S. has remained in a slump while the stock market has recaptured much of the value it lost from 2007 to 2009. Given that a much higher share of whites than blacks or Hispanics own stocks — as well as mutual funds and 401(k) or individual retirement accounts (IRAs) — the stock market rebound since 2009 is likely to have benefited white households more than minority households. (source)

This is the racial breakdown of child poverty in the U.S.:

child poverty by race

(source)
^ back to top

3. Incarceration or execution rates by population group

Statistics on the differences between races in incarceration or execution rates may indicate the existence of discrimination in the justice system, although these differences may have other causes besides discrimination, e.g. differences in poverty rates (see above), differences in levels of education etc. Of course, the latter differences may be caused by discrimination so that discrimination is indirectly the cause of the differences in the application of justice. Here again are some data on the situation in the US, showing that blacks, although they make up only 12 or 13% of the population, account for more than 1 in 3 of the prison population and of executions. 5% of black men are in jail, compared to less than 1% of white men.

justice and race in the us

justice and race in the us

One cause of these distortions in incarceration rates is racial profiling. Marijuana use by black residents of Washington DC is only slightly higher than among white residents. Given that blacks are slightly more numerous in DC than whites, we should – if criminal justice were fair – also see only slightly more blacks arrested for marijuana use. Surprise, surprise: that’s not the case. In 2007, 91 percent of those arrested for marijuana were black. Adjusting for population, African-Americans are eight times more likely to be arrested.

racial discrimination in marijuana arrests

(source, source, the drawing makes it look like blacks are more than 11 times more likely to get arrested – 8*11=91 – but that doesn’t take into account the fact that blacks are slightly more numerous in DC – hence the correct number is 8 times)

A similar pattern for Chicago (where whites are more numerous than blacks):

marijuana arrest rates by race, chicago

(source, click image to enlarge)

drug arrest rates by race

(source)

marijuana arrest rates by race

And this is the case for many if not all types of crimes.

^ back to top

4. Crime victims by population group

Blacks are also about twice as likely as whites to be a victim of a crime. In the US, 1 out of every 21 black men can expect to be murdered, a death rate double that of American servicemen in WWII (source).

murder rates by gender and race

(source)

While a lot of crime is black-on-black, it’s likely that the risk of being a victim of any type of crime is higher for people living in poor and segregated neighborhoods.

^ back to top

5. Education levels by population group

Again, for the US only:

education levels by population group

(source)

It’s highly likely that differences in quality of education are to blame here. And those differences in turn may be caused by discrimination.

^ back to top

6. Health by population groups

health by population group

health by population group

(source)

Again, much of these disparities may be the consequence of differences in quality healthcare provision.

^ back to top

7. Anti-semitism

WO-AS354_ANTSEM_G_20140512185704

(source)

negative views of jews in europe

(source)

Screen_Shot_2014-04-14_at_11.42.56_AM

(source)

More on anti-semitism here.

^ back to top

8. Public acceptance of racial/ethnic diversity

Public acceptance of racial or ethnic diversity, data for the U.S.

(source)
^ back to top

9. The Asal & Pate discrimination index

countries that discriminate minorities

(source)
^ back to top

20 thoughts on “Statistics on Discrimination of Minorities

  1. Pingback: Human Rights Quote (91): Poverty and Crime « P.A.P. Blog - Politics, Art and Philosophy

  2. Pingback: What is This Graph About? (2) « P.A.P. Blog – Human Rights Etc.

  3. Pingback: Discrimination, A Collection of Images « P.A.P. Blog – Human Rights Etc.

  4. Pingback: Iconic Images of Human Rights Violations (43): Black Power Salute at the Olympics « P.A.P. Blog – Human Rights Etc.

  5. Pingback: Human Rights Maps (90): Race and Poverty in the U.S. « P.A.P. Blog – Human Rights Etc.

  6. Pingback: Ngrams and Human Rights | P.A.P.-BLOG – HUMAN RIGHTS ETC.

  7. Pingback: Human Rights Facts (217): Race and Crime | P.A.P.-BLOG – HUMAN RIGHTS ETC.

  8. Pingback: What is Equality? Some Dimensions and Distinctions | P.a.p.-Blog | Human Rights Etc.

  9. Pingback: The Causes of Wealth Inequality (10): Racism | P.a.p.-Blog | Human Rights Etc.

  10. Pingback: Human Rights Nonsense (26): Anti-White Bias Bigger Problem Than Anti-Black Bias? | P.a.p.-Blog | Human Rights Etc.

  11. Pingback: Rampages : Is America Really Equal For All?

  12. Pingback: La discriminación que no miramos | DRK Blog

  13. Pingback: Irkçı Sömürü ve İnsan Hakları Hukuku-Galip Boz | Toplumsol

  14. Pingback: National Minority Health Month- Health Disparity and Discrimination Still Persists. | The LIAAC Blog

  15. Evan Law says:

    Hello everyone. I am fairly new to this community but am a very strong supporter of gay rights. If anyone needs an opinion or an ear to vent to. My door is always open.

  16. Pingback: Unravel Magazine: Sorry But Zimmerman Is Guilty And So Are We

  17. Pingback: Statistics on Discrimination of Minorities | R N B SINGER/ WRITER FEMME FINIX

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s