Female genital mutilation (FGM), or the practice involving the cutting away of one or more parts of the female genitalia (often the clitoris), violates girls’ and women’s human rights, denying them their physical integrity, their right to freedom from violence and discrimination and, in the most extreme cases, their right to life.
The sanitary conditions in which the practice takes place are often substandard leading to medical complications, infections and even death. It is often performed without anesthesia by untrained traditional midwives or laypersons with rudimentary health training, using knives, razor blades or even pieces of glass. Another consequence of FGM are the complications during future child delivery – impacting on women’s rights to a family life. Women who have undergone FGM are twice as likely to die during childbirth and are more likely to give birth to a stillborn child than other women.
The practice also stigmatizes girls and women and affects their feelings of self-esteem given that the justification for the practice is the supposed beneficial impact on female promiscuity. Girls and women are made to feel that without the practice, they would be immoral parts of society. Other justifications are tradition, religious requirements and cleanliness.
FGM is often called “female circumcision”, implying that it is similar to male circumcision. However, the degree of cutting is much more extensive, often impairing a woman’s sexual and reproductive functions.
The BBC estimates that FGM affects 100 million women and girls annually. UNICEF estimates that 70 million women and girls aged 15–49 in 27 countries of Africa and the Middle East have undergone the practice (most girls undergo FGM when they are between 7 and 10 years old). The fact that younger women are less likely to have experienced FGM shows that the practice is becoming slowly less common.
The following graph shows the percentages of girls and women aged 15–49 who have experienced FGM in some countries in Africa (source: UNICEF):
The practice occurs mainly in Africa, but can also be found in Oman, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen, as well as in parts of India, Indonesia, and Malaysia. Western countries seem to import the practice as a consequence of migration. However, until the 1950s FGM was performed in the West as a common “treatment” for lesbianism, masturbation, hysteria, epilepsy etc.